Year : 2021  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 92-96

Oral epidermoid cyst: clinicopathological report of a rare case

1 Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
2 Pathology Department, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohammed Adam Sheikh Abdullahi
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital Maiduguri, Borno State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomt.jomt_42_20

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Background: Epidermoid cyst of the oral cavity is very rare, slow-growing, benign neoplasm derived from the remnant of the neural tube. It accounts for less than 0.01% of all cystic lesions of the head and neck. Most of the intraoral cases are reported in the midline and floor of the mouth. Very rare cases are seen involving the tongue, lips, uvula, temporomandibular joint, maxillary, and buccal mucosa. The rare oral lesion is asymptomatic, but large masses present early with difficulty in breathing and swallowing. We report an uncommon case of epidermoid cyst in an infant with failure to thrive due to obstruction and inability to latch breast milk. Case report: A 40-day-old male infant presented with a large oral swelling in the floor of the mouth since birth. It measured 4 × 5 cm in size. Surgical excision with primary closure was successfully performed. The histopathological report confirmed the diagnosis of epidermoid cyst. The child recovered to full general health with no signs of recurrence. Conclusion: Oral epidermoid cyst is a rare neoplasm that may mimic dermoid cyst and teratoid tumors clinically. The treatment of choice is surgical excision; however, there is a recurrence rate of 33% and rarely transforms into malignancy.

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