Year : 2017  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 110-115

Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea risk among Nigerians

1 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria; Institute for Public Health and Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
2 Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Nigeria
4 Department Obstetrics Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria
5 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Maxwell O Akanbi
Department of Medicine Jos University Teaching Hospital, Plateau State, Nigeria

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jomt.jomt_17_17

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Background: The contribution of obesity to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is poorly described in Nigeria. We aimed to compare OSA risk between obese and nonobese adults in urban Nigeria. Materials and Methods: An analytic cross-sectional study was conducted. Participants were interviewed using the World Health Organization Non-Communicable Disease questionnaire. OSA risk assessment was performed using the STOP-BANG questionnaire. A total score of ≥3 on the STOP-BANG questionnaire indicated OSA risk, whereas a score ≥5 indicated high OSA risk. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2. Relationship between obesity and OSA was tested using chi-square and logistic regression models used to control for confounding factors. Results: There were 744 respondents, with a mean age of 44 (standard deviation 10) years. A total of 206 [27.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 24.46–30.9] respondents were obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). A total of 307 (41.3%, 95% CI 37.7–44.9) respondents scored ≥3 on the STOP-BANG questionnaire, whereas 37 (4.9%, 95% CI 3.6–6.7) scored ≥5. More number of obese than nonobese [57.8% (119/206) versus 34.9% (188/538)] respondents met the criteria for OSA risk (P < 0.001). Similarly, more obese persons [10.3% (21/206)] met the criteria for high-risk OSA compared to the nonobese [3% (16/538)]; P < 0.001. In logistic regression models adjusted for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, the odds for OSA risk was 15.76 (95% CI 7.44–33.9) in persons with BMI >35 kg/m2 compared to those with a BMI range of 18.5–24.99. Conclusion: Obesity and OSA may be more prevalent in Nigeria than previously predicted. Obesity independently increased OSA risk in this population.

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